Sonet And T1: Architectures For Digital Transport Networks, 2e

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Sonet And T1: Architectures For Digital Transport Networks, 2e  
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The definitive SONET guide, fully updated for the latest technologies and standards In-depth coverage of SONET operations, administration, and management New coverage: IP-over-SONET optical Internets, WDM integration, MPLS, and much more All new chapter on SDH and SONET/SDH interworking The professional's guide to SONET?completely updated for the latest innovations! SONET is the transport technology at the heart of virtually every high-speed optical network. SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition gives communications engineers and other professionals an in-depth understanding of every facet of SONET technology-including breakthrough IP-over-SONET optical Internets, new techniques for integrating SONET with WDM fiber, and other key innovations. The authors begin with an overview of SONET's goals and architecture, then present the most detailed coverage of SONET operations, administration, and management available in any book. SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition offers detailed information on the "hows" and "whys" of deploying and managing any SONET system, from architecture through maintenance, using real-life applications drawn from diverse carrier and business environments. This second edition's new coverage includes: New deployment examples for metropolitan and long-haul networks New passive optical applications New SONET network management solutions New coverage of SDH, the European SONET standard, and SONET/SDH interworking New techniques for expandincapacity with WDM IP-over-SONET: advantages, risks, and issues SONET and MPLS From day-to-day administration to long-term planning, SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition is your richest, most up-to-date SONET resource. SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition gives communications professionals up-to-the-minute insight into every facet of SONET technology including IP-over-SONET optical Internets, SONET/WDM integration, and other key innovations. It delivers the field's most detailed coverage of SONET operations, administration, and management, plus new and updated case studies from diverse carrier and corporate environments. TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix Notes for the Reader xxi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 What Are SONET and T1? 1 The Development of SONET 2 Role of ANSI and Key Standards Documents 5 The Network and Services Integration Forum (NSIF)) 6 SONET and T1 6 Features of SONET and T1 8 Synchronous Networks 9 SONET Timing 10 Payloads and Envelopes 12 Optical Fiber--the Bedrock for SONET 13 Typical SONET Topology 15 Present Transport Systems and SONET 18 Clarification of Terms 18 Summary 21 Chapter 2 Digital Transmission Carrier Systems 22 Organization of Telephone Services 22 Types of Signaling 25 Connecting the User to the Telephone System 26 Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Carrier Systems 30 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 31 Other Analog-to-Digital Techniques 42 Newer Digital Voice Schemes 49 The New Voice Coders 52 Summary 53 Appendix 2A Coding and Coding Violations 53 Chapter 3 Timing and Synchronization in Digital Networks 57 Timing and Synchronization in Digital Networks 57 Effect of Timing Errors 60 The Clocking Signal 60 Types of Timing in Networks 61 Timing Variations 65 Slip Operations in More Detail 67 Frequency Departures and Accuracies 70 Methods of Clock Exchange 72 Distribution of Timing Information with SONET and DS1 Signals 78 Decoupling the Clocks 79 Other Uses and Examples of Pointer Operations 79 Source Clock Frequency Recovery for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Systems 86 Synchronization Status Messages and Timing Loops 87 Examples of Timing Supply Systems 87 Summary 92 Chapter 4 The T1 Family 93 T1 Line Configurations 93 The Digital Network 95 Introduction to The D Family Channel Banks 97 North American Asynchronous Digital Hierarchy 98 Digital Loop Carrier Systems 101 T1 Line and Trunks 103 D1 Channel Banks 104 D2 Channel Banks 109 D3 Channel Banks 114 D4 Channel Banks 115 Vendors' D4 Channel Banks 117 Other D4 Features 120 D5 Channel Banks 126 Subscriber-type Systems 129 GR-303 130 Final Thoughts on the D Channel Banks 132 Fractional T1 (FT1) 133 Dividing and Filling the T1 Channel 133 Compensating for Clock Differences in a T1 System 134 Summary 136 Appendix 4A Frame Formats 137 Chapter 5 SONET Operations 146 Example of SONET Interfaces 146 Configuration Possibilities 149 SONET Layers 151 Beyond OC-192 154 Examples of Payload Mappings 156 The SONET Envelope in More Detail 157 SONET Equipment and Topologies 160 Summary 164 Chapter 6 Payload Mapping and Management 165 A Brief Review 165 SONET STS-1 Envelope 167 The SONET STS-3c Frame Structure 168 AT&T DDM-2000 OC-3 Shelf 169 Mapping and Multiplexing Operations 175 Rows and columns of the VTs 182 Construction of the Entire SPE 185 A Final Look At Another Mapping Operation 193 Summary 194 Chapter 7 Topologies and Configurations 195 Typical Topologies 195 Protection Switching in More Detail 195 The BLSR 198 Add-Drop and Cross-Connects on Ring or Point-to-Point Topologies 205 Provisioning SONET Machines for Add-Drop and Cross-Connect Operations 208 Example of Protection Switching on a Two Fiber Bidirectional Ring 215 Cascading the Timing on Multiple Rings 217 Summary 219 Chapter 8 Operations, Administration, and Maintenance 220 Need for Rigorous Testing 220 Alarm Surveillance 221 Categories of Tests 222 OAM and the SONET Layers 231 The SONET OAM Headers 233 More Information on the D Bytes 239 STS-3c Frames and Overhead 239 Maintenance Signals and Layers 241 Examples of OAM Operations 243 ATM and SONET OAM Operations 245 SONET and Network Management Protocols 247 The Network Management Model 247 Summary 253 Chapter 9 Manufacturers' and Vendors' Systems 254 Introduction 254 SONET Releases 254 The Major Vendors 256 Examples of Nortel Networks' Products 257 Example of OPTera Node 258 Examples of Fujitsu's Products 259 Examples of Alcatel's Products 264 Examples of Lucent Technologies' Products 266 Examples of NEC's Products 268 Chapter 10 The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy 269 SDH Systems Connecting to the United States 269 Comparison Of SONET and SDH 270 Key Terms 271 Transporting E4, H4, and DS-1 Signals 273 The SDH Multiplexing Hierarchy 273 SONET (1.544 Mbit/s) Mapping and Multiplexing Structure 274 SDH (2.048 Mbit/s) Mapping and Multiplexing Structure 275 SONET (DS1C) Mapping And Multiplexing Structure 276 SONET (DS-2) Mapping And Multiplexing Structure 276 SONET 44.736 Mbit/s, SDH 34.368 Mbit/s, and 139.264 Mbit/s Mapping and Multiplexing Structure 277 Three Types of Mapping for the VC-11, VC-12, or VC-2 Signals 277 Revised SDH Digital Hierarchy 279 SDH Overhead Bytes 280 Chapter 11 SONET and WDM, Optical Ethernet, ATM, IP, and MPLS 286 Introduction 286 Introduction to WDM 287 Capacity of WDM 287 Running SONET over WDM 288 TDM SONET and WDM 288 Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) 289 WDM Amplifers 290 Wavelength WDMs 291 Optical Cross-Connects (OXC) with WDM 292 Passive Optical Networks (PONs) 293 The "Sweet Spot" 294 Optical Ethernets and Ethernet PONs 295 ATM and SONET 296 IP and SONET 298 ATM in the SONET Envelope 298 IP and PPP in the SONET Envelope 299 ATM vs. IP over SONET 300 Evolution of the Optical Broadband Network 303 Migration to Label Switching Networks 304 Mapping Labels to Wavelengths 306 Label Switched Paths (LSPS) and Optical Switched Paths (OSPS) 307 Protocol Stack Possibilites 309 Summary and Conclusions 310 A New Optical Network Model 312 In Conclusion 313 Appendix A Transmission Media 314 Properties of Light and Optical Fiber 315 Electromagnetic Spectrum 317 Properties of Light: Reflection and Refraction 319 Types of Fibers 324 Sources and Receivers of Optical Fiber Signals 327 Fiber Cable Structure 334 Fiber Losses 337 References 343 Acronyms 347 Index 352

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